Multieventi Sport Domus
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players each face off to mark with a ball in the opponents’ basket, according to a set of fixed rules.
The game is played by two teams of five players each. Each team also has a number of reservations that can vary from 5 to 7 (depending on the championships), which may replace without limitation players holders and in turn be substituted. A player who has been replaced may in any case return to the field to replace a teammate. Only in cases where a player is individualized with 5 fouls or is expelled he can no longer play the game and must be obligatorily replaced.
The purpose of each of the teams is to score points by passing the ball inside the ring of the opponents’ basket (attack) and prevent players from the other team to do the same (defense).
Each game lasts 40 minutes divided into 4 periods of 10 minutes each (12 minutes in the NBA for a total of 48 minutes), subdivision that previously was of 2 periods of 20 minutes. Between the 2nd and the 3rd period it is made an interval of 10 or 15 minutes (in Italy the longer applies in Serie A and Series A2 and the shortest one in the other championships). The resumption of play the teams must exchange the field, while in other cases the range is only 2 minutes (without changing pitch).
Each team to complete an attack has 24 seconds of time, if we are unable possession goes to the opposing team. The 24 seconds are reset each time the ball changes possession or touches the ring of the basket. If there is a foul or an infringement of the foot, if they were 13 seconds or less the clock is reset to 14 seconds.
The game winning team is the one that has achieved the most points at the end of the 4th period of the game. In case of a tie the contest is extended by another 5 minutes (extra time) and in case of further tie will proceed to the bitter end with other times until one of the teams is not able to field two players because others have committed 5 fouls or have been expelled or are injured.
Basketball was created by one man: Dr. James Naismith, a canadian professor of physical education. In 1891 Naismith was working at the YMCA International Training School of Springfield, Massachusetts. He was asked to find a sport that could keep training during the winter season football players as an alternative to gym exercises. Inspired by the Canadian game duck on a rock, the basketball was born the 15th of December 1891, adjusted for thirteen standards, with a basket hanging from the ends of the sports center gym and teams composed of a variable number of players. On the 21st of December, it challenged the first game of basketball history, between two teams of nine players: finished 1 to 0 thanks to the basket by William Richmond Chase. The name’s game was coined by one of the students of James Naismith, Frank Mahan, after the inventor had refused to call Naismithball. The 15th of January 1892 Naismith published the game’s rules: it is the official birthday of basketball. The basket was applied to the height of the stands, as the basket used a wicker basket and when the ball came in it they used a ladder to take it. The sport became popular in the United States in a very short time, starting immediately after to spread throughout the world, through the network of YMCA hostels; the Naismith students became missionaries and as they traveled the world to bring the Christian message, they could involve young people in the new game. It was added to the Olympic program at the 1936 Berlin Olympics (although there had previously been a basketball tournament during the Olympics in St. Louis in 1904, not officially recognized by the IOC). On that occasion, Naismith handed the gold medal to the United States, who defeated in the final Canada. In 1946 he was born in the US National Basketball Association (NBA), in order to organize professional teams and make the sport most popular.
In the rest of the world, the spread is enhanced through the creation of the International Basketball Federation in 1932.